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18. Canada, Australia, New Zealand (Kanada, Austrálie, Nový Zéland)

Is the second largest country in the world after Russia, Its capital is Ottawa. The country has a sea shore on the Arctic Ocean, giving the longest coastline of any country. In the south, Canada borders with the United States. Most of the population live within 300 km of the country’s southern border, where are mild springs, hot summers and pleasant autumns.

There are some 2 million lakes in Canada. It shares (sdílí) four of the Great Lakes with the USA: Lake Superior, Huron, Erie and Ontario. Niagara Falls lies on the border with the USA, and the Canadian part is called Horseshoe Fall. The longest river is Mackenzie. Canada has 38 national parks. Typical Canadian animals include: bison, prairie dogs (psoun prérijní), rattle-snakes (chřestýš), moose (losi), bears, …. Today Canada is a member of the British Commonwealth of Nations and so its official head is the Queen represented by the Governor-General (generální guvernér). The seat of the democratic Parliament is Ottawa. The typical is the national flag with a red maple leaf (Canada is a big producer of maple syrup). The largest cities are Toronto and Montreal which is also the second largest French-speaking city in the world and a major inland seaport. The official language is English and French. Canadians like to play ice hockey as it was invented there, lacrosse and curling.

Is the smallest continent in the world. It is situated between the Pacific and the Indian Oceans in the southern hemisphere. The island was discovered by Captain James Cook in 1770. There are mostly plains in Australia and a great part of the surface is desert. The climate may seem strange – Australian seasons are the opposite of the northern hemisphere. Summer starts in December, autumn in March, winter in June and spring in September. As the island is separate from the rest of the world, Australia has a lot of unique animals like kangaroo, koala, emu, kiwi, dingo, ….There are about 18 million inhabitants in the country. The majority are of British origin and most of them live on the eastern coast where the density is the highest. In total Australia has the lowest density in the world – only 2 people to a square kilometre. There are big distances between farms so they mostly communicate through radio and internet. Even the schools work like that. A helicopter is an important means of transport there. The Australians like playing rugby, and Australian football. Cricket is another popular game. Australia is a member of the British Commonwealth of Nations. It is a dominion with the Queen as the head of the country. The capital is Canberra. The largest and the oldest city is Sidney which is typical with its Opera House looking like sailing boats. The second largest city is Melbourne.

New Zealand
Is situated southeast of Australia and it consists of two large islands. The country is hilly and picturesque with rocks, volcanoes, hot springs, …. The characteristics of the New Zealand are evergreen forest and warm climate. In NZ we can find unique kinds of plants and animals, which do not grow and do not live anywhere in the world. The typical animals are kiwis, mountains parrots and brown emu. The islands were discovered by a Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1642. So it was a Dutch colony at first and later Captain James Cook claimed the country for Great Britain. Film makers often use the countryside for making films, the Oscar winning film Lord of the Rings was shot there. The capital is Wellington in North Island. Auckland is another major city. NZ is a modern county with a well developed economy.

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