Hledejte v chronologicky řazené databázi studijních materiálů (starší / novější příspěvky).

22. Road / Land Transport (Silniční / pozemní doprava)

The first indications of constructed roads are from about 4000 BC. Those were made mainly of stones. The road builders around 1800 used stone, gravel (štěrk) and sand for construction. John Metcalfe, a Scot born in 1717, built about 180 miles of roads in Yorkshire, England, even though he was blind. His roads were built with three layers: large stones, excavated (vykopaný) road material and a layer of gravel. Today, 96 % of all paved (dlážděný) roads and streets are surfaced with asphalt. Almost all paving asphalt used today is made by processing crude oils (surová nafta).

If speaking about road / land transport / travelling we mean transport by cars, buses, motorcycles, trains, trams, trolleys, bicycles, ……. Let’s have a look at the advantages and disadvantages of the most spread of them.

• Speed
• Travelling is quick
• Comfortable
• You can go anywhere and whenever you need to
• You aren’t dependent on public transport
• There is sufficient space for luggage
• You can stop where you want
• You can change your journey plan if necessary

• Expensive
• High expenses on fuel repair service
• Dangerous traffic during peak-hours
• Environmental –unfriendly

• For many people it is the only way to get to work
• Bus services link all major towns, cities and villages
• On many routes cut-price fares are provided for students, pensioners and the disabled
• Modern buses and coaches are very comfortable

• Bus fares are increasingly more expensive
• Old buses are very slow, uncomfortable, and sometimes, especially in winter, not punctual and very crowded. They don’t even look very reliable.

• It is relatively cheap
• There is enough space if it is not crowded
• You can rest while travelling
• You can have a meal in a restaurant car
• You can sleep in a sleeper car
• Thanks to new technology, trains are becoming faster, more punctual, more comfortable, cleaner, and more reliable

• Less comfortable than flying or travelling by cars
• Sometimes you must change or wait for a connection
• Trains in the Czech Republic are often late, dirty, and shabby
• There is often almost no difference between first and second class

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